This site is best viewed through a modern browser. Our browser support policy is similar to that of Google for its “G Suite” products. More specifically, we support the current stable release of Safari, Chrome, Firefox, and Edge (Chromium-based). Each time a new version of these browsers is released, we begin supporting the new release and drop support of the previously supported version.
This policy is not as draconian as it may seem. We don’t go out of our way to break previously supported browsers. Rather, we just quit testing changes to the site on the older products. Typically, many older versions of Safari, Chrome, and Firefox work quite well with this site.
The same statement does not hold for the MS Edge Legacy product and Internet Explorer. We don’t specifically test Internet Explorer 11, but it supports encyption algortihms that are capable of accessing the site on Windows 7 and Windows 10. Earlier versions of Internet Explorer do not support modern cipher suites and can not access the site. If you still run Windows XP and neeed to access the site your best bet is to try Chrome 49 or Firefox 49 (or more recent versions of these browsers) for XP SP3.
A note for Opera users. Although not formally supported, we do inspect the site through Opera from time to time. We are not aware of any glaring issues when viewing the site with recent versions of Opera – since recent versions are based on the Chromium project and share a common infrastructure with Google Chrome.
We have expended effort to provide a pleasant experience when viewing this site on mobile devices. However, we must constrain that statement by the word Apple. We don’t have a philosophical objection to Android or Windows mobile devices. We are just an Apple shop and don’t purchase other vendors' devices for testing. That being said, we aren’t aware of any theoretical difficulties to viewing our content with recent non-Apple mobile browsers. No Apple specific techniques were used when coding this site.
Early versions of Android (prior to 4.4.2) and iOS (prior to 9.0) do not provide adequate cryptographic facilities for accessing this site. Similarly, Windows phones prior to 8.1 lack adequate cryptographic support.
Mathematical content on this site is encoded using presentation MathML.
This site is served as HTML5. We previously served our content as xml/xhtml to browsers that provide xml support. We changed our policy since it seemed that was not the direction the internet was heading.
By, default, we serve this site via HTTP/2 over TLS 1.3. For older browsers, we still support HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/2 over TLS 1.2. Ancient browers with subpar encryption are not able to access this site.
We provide dual certification: ECHDSA and RSA. By default, the site serves an ECDSA certificate, uses X25519 key exchange, and the TLS 1.3 cipher suite AES-256-GCM-SHA384, i.e. TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384. An RSA certificate is available for older browsers. For TLS 1.2, the preferred cipher suite is ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384. The minimun strength cipher suite that is accepted is the TLS 1.2 algorithm ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256 (used by old Android phones). The server’s basic cipher preferences are ECDSA over RSA for key exchange and AES-256-GCM > CHACHA20 > AES-128-GCM for block ciphers.
Practically, this implies all modern browsers provide adequate encryption support. Some pertinent browser version minima follow:
The TLS 1.3 standard, RFC8446, was published by the IETF on August 9, 2018. TLS 1.3 is supported and enabled by default in recent versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari (macOS, iOS), MS Edge (as well as other Chromium derived products), Android, Java, and OpenSSL.
Support for HTTP/2 is available “out of the box” from all but the most ancient of browsers with adequate encryption algorithms.