;

7.5 TeX Fonts

As you might have observed from the preceding sections, the major commercial type foundries have not expended much effort on developing mathematical typefaces. From time to time, software houses will commission the development of math fonts, but the type shops rarely develop mathematical fonts for their own purposes. This is true for the obvious reason – scientific/mathematical publishing is a niche market that, for the most part, has developed its own publication solutions.

For the last 25 years, Donald Knuth’s TeX software, and its offspring, have played a major role in publishing mathematically oriented documents. TeX was originally developed to typeset technical documents and pays particular attention to the subtleties of mathematical layout. Many scientific journals accept articles for publication authored in various TeX-centric formats.

Due to this heritage, modern TeX distributions provide a variety of mathematical symbol fonts. The traditional math fonts and packaging formats utilized by TeX can, with the proper massaging, be used to display math in browsers. However, discussion of these fonts and techniques for accomplishing this task are an arcane topic outside the scope of this document. In all likelihood, you already know how to use traditional TeX fonts with your browser if it is the optimal way for you to get the job done.

However, some of the more recent variants of TeX – particularly XeTeX, LuaTeX, and their offspring – utilize fonts implemented in modern Unicode character sets and OpenType formats. These fonts can be easily used on current desktop operating systems in non-TeX environments.

7.5.1 Asana Math

The Asana Math font was developed by Apostolos Syropoulos for the TeX project. It is intended to support font processing features available in XeTeX and LuaTeX. Asana Math is a Paltino compatible typeface and is packaged in OpenType format. It contains all mathematical symbols included in current version of the Unicode specification. Its OpenType format is compatible with recent releases of Microsoft Word. As such, it can serve as a Cambria Math replacement. As seen in Section 2, recent versions of Firefox support Asana Math for native MathML rendering.

Table 16 summarizes the mathematical symbol coverage of Asana-Math.

Table 16: Asana-Math’s Math Coverage
Unicode Block Description Coverage
U+0370–U+03FF Greek and Coptic 83 glyphs
U+2000–U+206F General Punctuation 33 glyphs
U+2070–U+209F Superscripts and Subscripts 34 glyphs
U+2100–U+214F Letterlike Symbols 71 glyphs
U+2200–U+22FF Mathematical Operators 256 glyphs
U+2300–U+23FF Miscellaneous Technical 53 glyphs
U+27C0–U+27EF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A 45 glyphs
U+2980–U+29FF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B 128 glyphs
U+2A00–U+2AFF Supplemental Mathematical Operators 256 glyphs
U+1D400–U+1D7FF Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols 996 glyphs
Supplementary Private Use Area B 654 glyphs

7.5.2 Latin Modern

The Latin Modern font family is a recent incarnation of Donald Knuth's Computer Modern fonts. They are produced by the Polish type foundry GUST e-font. The publishers bundle the these fonts in two packages: Latin Modern and Latin Modern Math. The fonts are implemented in the Unicode character set and packaged in OpenType formats.

Table 17 summarizes the mathematical symbol coverage of the Latin Modern Math font. As you might assume, this font family contains all math symbols required for traditional TeX math publication.

Table 17: Latin Modern’s Math Coverage
Unicode Block Description Coverage
U+0370–U+03FF Greek and Coptic 54 glyphs
U+2000–U+206F General Punctuation 26 glyphs
U+2100–U+214F Letterlike Symbols 42 glyphs
U+2200–U+22FF Mathematical Operators 172 glyphs
U+2300–U+23FF Miscellaneous Technical 40 glyphs
U+27C0–U+27EF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A 7 glyphs
U+2A00–U+2AFF Supplemental Mathematical Operators 30 glyphs
U+1D400–U+1D7FF Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols 872 glyphs

7.5.3 TeX Gyre

The TeX Gyre font families are modern incarnations of the Ghostscript fonts (which are, in turn, implementations of PostScript’s core fonts). Section 7.4.5 provides additional information on this subject.

The TeX Gyre fonts are produced by the Polish type foundry GUST e-font. They are implemented in the Unicode character set and packaged in an OpenType format. The publishers bundle these fonts into eight typefaces intended for nontechnical content: Adventor, Bonum, Chorus, Cursor, Heros, Pagella, Schola, and Termes. One mathematical font, TeX Gyre Pagella Math, is available. The Pagella typeface is TeX Gyre’s Palatino equivalent. Obviously, Pagella Math is a Palatino compatible math symbol font.

Table 17 summarizes the mathematical symbol coverage of the TeX Gyre Pagella Math font.

Table 18: Pagella-Math’s Math Coverage
Unicode Block Description Coverage
U+0370–U+03FF Greek and Coptic 55 glyphs
U+2000–U+206F General Punctuation 33 glyphs
U+2200–U+22FF Mathematical Operators 237 glyphs
U+2300–U+23FF Miscellaneous Technical 50 glyphs
U+27C0–U+27EF Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A 20 glyphs
U+2A00–U+2AFF Supplemental Mathematical Operators 26 glyphs
U+1D400–U+1D7FF Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols 989 glyphs
Glyph Variants (many not math related) 1901 glyphs